Small gas engines serve us in many ways. They power lawn mowers, tillers, cultivators, trimmers, edgers, snowblowers, chain saws, pumps, generators, air compressors, and other useful home tools. They also power our fun: outboard boats, snowmobiles, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, ultralight aircraft, and other toys. To keep them operating efficiently, an owner of these tools and toys should know about small engines: how they work and what to do when they don’t.
Small gas engines are made up of individual systems that work together to produce power. Each system has many components. Internal combustion gasoline-powered engines require six systems: fuel, exhaust, ignition, combustion, cooling, and lubrication. In this article, we will discuss the systems and components that make small engines work.
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Fuel and Exhaust
The fuel and exhaust systems are critical to operation. They furnish the fuel for combustion and remove exhaust gases. The following are components of a fuel and exhaust system.
Gasoline: Gasoline is a combustible liquid that burns relatively slowly. However, when sprayed as a mist and mixed with air, it is quite explosive. All it needs is a spark. Two-stroke engines require that oil be mixed with the gasoline to lubricate internal parts. Four-stroke engines use a fuel-air mixture.
Fuel Tank: The fuel tank stores fuel in preparation for mixing by the carburetor and use by the engine. Some fuel tanks are pressurized with air to help deliver fuel to the carburetor. Other tanks are non-pressurized and depend on a fuel pump to deliver fuel to the carburetor.
Fuel Line: Fuel is moved from the tank to the pump and/or carburetor through a fuel line. Pressurized fuel systems often have a squeeze bulb in the fuel line for building pressure.
Filter: A carburetor jet has a small opening that can easily become clogged. A fuel filter traps dirt and sediment from the gas before it is delivered to the carburetor.
We hope to be helpful with our small engine repair guide.